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Unstable Majorities


Party Sorting – Party sorting occurs when parties become more homogenous. For instance, party sorting occurred over the past few decades as liberal Republicans became Democrats and conservative Democrats became Republicans. Instead of a political party having both liberals and conservatives under its tent, sorting means it becomes dominated by one ideology.

Party sorting does have some negative consequences, as it can lead to political. Even more importantly, party sorting makes a major contribution to gridlock and political stalemate. On the other hand, sorting has clarified the choices facing the electorate and made it easier for voters to assign political responsibility to elected politicians.

Political Class– The political class consists of office-seekers, donors, activists, policymakers, partisan media commentators, and other similar parties.

Independents– A voter or politician without any partisan affiliation. 

Two Party System vs Multi-Party System- A multiparty system is one where more than two political parties exist and have a chance of leading the government. Since one party rarely wins enough seats to govern by itself, they have to form coalitions, which forces them to compromise. This is different from the United States where there are two political parties that dominate the political field.

Overreach– Overreach occurs when a party captures a majority of independents and win an election, but then govern according to the priorities and positions of their base, thereby alienating the independents who helped them win. Overreach often causes parties to lose the following election when their independent base leaves.